Journalist, commentator, writer (1922–2011). He worked for Życie Warszawy and then for the Belgian daily Le Soir. He was a regular contributor to the Paris-based Kultura and Radio Free Europe, and frequently published comments in the International Herald Tribune. Twice awarded the Mieroszewski Prize. In 2009 honoured with the Polish PEN Club Award and a honorary doctorate from the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. Recipient of the Jan Karski Eagles Award (2010). Author of many books, among others Wypędzanie szatana (Banishing Satan, 2005).